Network Technology Articles

Network Technology. Networks are a collection of interconnected elements. They consist of two or more computers or peripherals linked together, either physically (e.g. via USB or Ethernet cables) or wirelessly (e.g. via WiFi). The term encompasses everything from personal (such as those linking mobile phones and Bluetooth headsets) to local and wise area networks, more

Network Technology. Networks are a collection of interconnected elements. They consist of two or more computers or peripherals linked together, either physically (e.g. via USB or Ethernet cables) or wirelessly (e.g. via WiFi). The term encompasses everything from personal (such as those linking mobile phones and Bluetooth headsets) to local and wise area networks, cloud networks, company intranets, and the Internet as a whole. Networks and websites need to be secure and protected. Explore our range of hardware, software and service suppliers to source everything from data buses, signal connectors, fibre optics and management software.

Computer buses are a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers. This expression covers all related hardware components and software, including communication protocols. Early computer buses were parallel electrical wires with multiple hardware connections, but the term is now used for any physical arrangement that provides the same logical function as a parallel electrical bus. Modern computer buses can use both parallel and bit serial connections and can be wired in either a multi drop or daisy chain topology, or connected by switched hubs, as in the case of USB.

Network access is an approach to computer security that attempts to unify endpoint security technology, user or system authentication and network security enforcement. It uses a set of protocols to define and implement a policy that describes how to secure access to network nodes by devices when they initially attempt to access the network. Network Access might integrate the automatic remediation process into the network systems, allowing the network infrastructure such as routers, switches and firewalls to work together with back office servers and end user computing equipment to ensure the information systems, is operating securely before interoperability is allowed.

Network Cards are a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network. Early network interface controllers were commonly implemented on expansion cards that plugged into a computer bus. The low cost and ubiquity of the Ethernet standard means that most newer computers have a network interface built into the motherboard. Modern network interface controllers offer advanced features such as interrupt and DMA interfaces to the host processors, support for multiple receive and transmit queues, partitioning into multiple logical interfaces and on-controller network traffic processing.

Network management is the process of administering and managing computer networks. Services provided by this discipline include all fault analysis, performance management, provisioning of networks and maintaining the quality of service. Software that enables network administrators to perform their functions is called network management software. A number of accessory methods exist to support network and network device management. Network management allows IT professionals to monitor network components within large network area. Access methods include the SNMP, command-line interface, custom XML, CMIP, Windows Management Instrumentation, Transaction Language and more.

Network performance refers to measures of service quality of a network as seen by the customer. There are many different ways to measure the performance of a network, as each network is different in nature and design. Performance can also be modelled and simulated instead of measured; one example of this is using state transition diagrams to model queuing performance or to use a network simulator. The following measures are often considered important: Bandwidth commonly measured in bits/second is the maximum rate that information can be transferred. Throughput is the actual rate that information is transferred. Latency the delay between the sender and the receiver decoding it, this is mainly a function of the signals travel time, and processing time at any nodes the information traverses. Jitter variation in packet delay at the receiver of the information. Error rate is the number of corrupted bits expressed as a percentage or fraction of the total sent.

Network Switches are a computer networking device that connects devices together on a computer network by using packet switching to receive, process and forward data to the destination device. A network switch is a multipart network bridge that uses hardware addresses to process and forward data at the data link layer of the OSI model. Some switches can also process data at the network layer by additionally incorporating routing functionality. Such switches are commonly known as layer-3 switches or multilayer switches. Switches for Ethernet are the most common form of network switch.

Electrical signal connectors are an electro-mechanical device that is used to join electrical terminations and create an electrical circuit. Electrical connectors consist of plugs and jacks. The connection may be temporary, as for portable equipment, require a tool for assembly and removal, or serve as a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices. An adapter can be used to effectively bring together dissimilar connectors. Hundreds of types of electrical connectors are manufactured for power, signal and control applications.

Radio modulation modes are items within electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic wave form, called the carrier signal, with modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted. Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM) to make the carrier carry the radio broadcast. In general telecommunications, modulation is a process of conveying message signal, for example, a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted.

Network Hubs are a network device for connecting multiple Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment. It has multiple input/output ports, in which a signal introduced at the input of any port appears at the output of every port except the original incoming. A hub works at the physical layer of the OSI model. A repeater hub also participates in collision detection, forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision. In addition to standard ports, some hubs may also come with a BNC or an Attachment Unit Interface connector to allow connection to a network segment.

Networking Storage is a computer network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to enhance storage devices such as disk arrays and tape libraries, accessible to servers so that the devices appear to the operating system as locally attached devices. A networking storage system typically is a separate network of storage devices not accessible through the local area network by other devices. The cost and complexity dropped in the early 2000s to levels allowing wider adoption across both enterprise and small to medium-sized business environments.

Networking Workstations are a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. The term workstation has also been used loosely to refer to everything from a mainframe computer terminal to a PC connected to a network, but the most common form refers to the group of hardware offered in several public places.

Computer networking involves linking two or more computers or devices (such as mobile phones) together in order to exchange data. Networks may be physical (connected with wires and cables) or wireless (for example, connected by Bluetooth or Wi-Fi). The largest and best-known network today is the Internet, which links over 6.5 billion devices (and by some estimates, considerably more).

Computer networks are typically built around hubs, switches and routers. With hubs, all data received an any port is passed to all other ports. All devices linked to a hub are part of the same "collision domain", where messages will conflict or interfere with each other if they are transmitted at the same time. Switches learn the locations of IP addresses linked to each of their ports so they only need to transmit data on one port, meaning each pair of ports forms a separate collision domain. Routers are like switches in dividing networks into collision domains, but also create separate domains for broadcast messages, creating an additional level of separation between the two sides of the router.

Typically, a router is required to link networks with the internet, while switches and hubs are used to create local networks and subnetworks. Each computer in a network is uniquely identified by a built-in media-access control (MAC) address, but for networking purposes, it is also assigned an IP address, which is used to identify computers on the internet. The standard IP (IPv4) address consists of four eight-digit binary numbers, but these are often reported as four 3-digit decimal numbers separated by dots - sometimes called 'dotted quad notation'.

Due to the increasingly widespread use of the internet, and the rise in wireless internet-enabled devices, the demand for IPv4 addresses is growing beyond the number of addresses available. Therefore, devices are now frequently assigned separate local IP addresses, so that only one computer in a building needs to have a global IP address assigned to it. Also, a new protocol (IPv6) has been developed, offering a greatly expanded set of IP addresses, which are currently being used in parallel with IPv4 addresses.

Computer network analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming and modelling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, while being used in different businesses, science and social science domains. Data mining is a particular technique that focuses on modelling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes, while business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing mainly on business information.

Computer networking involves linking two or more computers or devices (such as mobile phones) together in order to exchange data. Networks may be physical (connected with wires and cables) or wireless (for example, connected by Bluetooth or Wi-Fi). The largest and best-known network today is the Internet, which links over 6.5 billion devices (and by some estimates, considerably more).

Computer networks are typically built around hubs, switches and routers. With hubs, all data received an any port is passed to all other ports. All devices linked to a hub are part of the same "collision domain", where messages will conflict or interfere with each other if they are transmitted at the same time. Switches learn the locations of IP addresses linked to each of their ports so they only need to transmit data on one port, meaning each pair of ports forms a separate collision domain. Routers are like switches in dividing networks into collision domains, but also create separate domains for broadcast messages, creating an additional level of separation between the two sides of the router.

Typically, a router is required to link networks with the internet, while switches and hubs are used to create local networks and subnetworks. Each computer in a network is uniquely identified by a built-in media-access control (MAC) address, but for networking purposes, it is also assigned an IP address, which is used to identify computers on the internet. The standard IP (IPv4) address consists of four eight-digit binary numbers, but these are often reported as four 3-digit decimal numbers separated by dots - sometimes called 'dotted quad notation'.

Due to the increasingly widespread use of the internet, and the rise in wireless internet-enabled devices, the demand for IPv4 addresses is growing beyond the number of addresses available. Therefore, devices are now frequently assigned separate local IP addresses, so that only one computer in a building needs to have a global IP address assigned to it. Also, a new protocol (IPv6) has been developed, offering a greatly expanded set of IP addresses, which are currently being used in parallel with IPv4 addresses.

Computer network analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming and modelling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, while being used in different businesses, science and social science domains. Data mining is a particular technique that focuses on modelling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes, while business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing mainly on business information.

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