Minerals are compounds found in rocks, usually appearing in crystalline form. They include silicates such as silicon dioxide (quartz) and feldspar, and non-silicates, which include raw elements, organic (carbon-based) minerals and naturally occurring metal alloys. These may be oxides, sulfides, sulphates, phosphates and carbonates. Minerals are typically one component more
Minerals are compounds found in rocks, usually appearing in crystalline form. They include silicates such as silicon dioxide (quartz) and feldspar, and non-silicates, which include raw elements, organic (carbon-based) minerals and naturally occurring metal alloys. These may be oxides, sulfides, sulphates, phosphates and carbonates. Minerals are typically one component in a rock, aggregated with other minerals and materials that must be separated by grinding, sorting, smelting filtration or other processes to obtain minerals in pure form.
Common minerals used in industry include quartz, used in optical instruments such as lenses and prisms, bauxite, from which aluminum can be extracted, cobalt, which is a key ingredient in hard-wearing alloys used for applications ranging from permanent magnets to turbine engines. A related product is sand, which is formed from a range of mineral and rock particles. The precise composition of sand varies widely from place to place and both particle size and composition have a significant impact on the value of different sands for different applications. Other valuable minerals include raw metals such as tin, tungsten, silver, gold and platinum.
Mineral processing equipment ranges from mining, grinding, smelting and filtration equipment to the viscometers and particle sizing instruments used for material characterization, process monitoring and control. Browse the products below to find minerals and mineral processing products on the Copybook network.
Non-metallic minerals are minerals that lack metallic attributes. A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound that is usually formed of crystalline and not by a life process. Minerals have one specific chemical composition. As of 2018, there are 5,500 known mineral species. They are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure can distinguish the various species which is determined by the geological environment that the mineral is created in. Some examples of non-metallic minerals include: Clay, Quartz, Chalk, Slate and Dolomite.
Mill (grinding) is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing or cutting. Such comminution is an important unit operation in many processes. There are many different types of mills and many types of materials processed in them. Historically mills were powered by hand, working animal, wind or water. Today they are usually powered by electricity. The grinding of solid materials occurs through mechanical forces that break up the structure by overcoming the interior bonding forces.
Concentrators are a method of increasing the concentration of wanted minerals. There are several methods that can be used and in any particular case the method will be dependant on the relative physical and surface chemical properties of the mineral and the gangue. In the case of mineral processing, concentration means the increase of the percentage of the valuable minerals in the concentrate. The processes used include: gravity concentration, froth flotation, electrostatic separation, magnetic separation, automated ore separation, dewatering and many other methods.
Gyratory equipment is used in mechanical screening and sieving is based on a circular motion of the machine. Unlike other methods, gyratory screen operates in a gentler manner and is more suited to handle fragile things, enabling it to produce finer products. This method is applicable for both wet and dry screening. A distinct difference to other techniques is that the gyratory motion applied here depends on eccentric weights instead of vibrations, which can be varied based on individual process requirement.
Coal homogenisation refers to the process of mixing coal to reduce the variance of the product supplied. This homogenisation process is performed during the coal stockpiling operation. Although the terms blending and homogenisation are often used interchangeably, there are differences as the definitions show. The most notable difference is that blending refers to stacking coal from different sources together on one stockpile. The reclaimed heap would then typically have a weighted average output quantity go the input sources. In contrast, homogenisation focuses on reducing the variance of only one source.
Mine Steam Pump Engines are mainly used for pumping water from a mine. It is a form of engine that uses steam at a higher pressure than earlier engines. The engines were also used for powering man engines to assist the underground miners journeys to and from their working levels, for winching materials into and out of the mine and for powering on-site ore stamping machinery. A common type of engine used is the Cornish steam engine.
Quarry tub is a type of railway or tramway wagon used in quarries and other industrial locations for the transport of minerals (such as coal, sand, ore, clay and stone) from a quarry or mine face to processing plants or between various parts parts of an industrial site. This type of wagon may be small enough for one person to push, or designed for haulage by a horse, or for connection in a train hauled by a locomotive. The tubs are designed for ease of emptying, usually by a side-tipping action. This type of rail vehicle is now widely obsolete, it's function having been replaced by conveyor belts.
Raise borer is a machine used in underground mining, to excavate a circular hole between two levels of a mine without the use of explosives. The raise borer is set up on the level of the two levels to be connected, on an evenly laid platform. A small-diameter hole is drilled to the level required; the diameter of this hole is typically 230mm - 445mm, large enough to accommodate the drill string. Once the drill has broken into the opening on the target level, the bit is removed and a reamer head, of the required diameter of the excavation is attached to the drill string and raised back towards the machine.
Reclaimer, in mining, is a large machine that recovers bulk materials such as ores and cereals from a stockpile. Reclaimers are volumetric machines and are rated in m3/h (cubic meters per hour) for capacity, which is often converted to t/h (tonnes per hour) based on the average bulk density of the material being reclaimed. Reclaimers normally travel on a rail between stockpiles in the stockyard. A bucket wheel reclaimer can typically move in three directions: horizontally along the rail, vertically by luffing its boom and rotationally by slewing its boom.
Rocker box is an implement used in gold mining for separating alluvial placer gold from sand and gravel which was used in placer mining in the 19th century. It consists of a high sided box, which is open on one end and at the top and was placed on rockers. The inside bottom of the box is lined with riffles and a carpet similar to sluice. On top of the box is a classifier sieve which screens out larger pieces of rock and other materials, allowing only finer sand and gravel through. Between the sieve and the lower sluice section is a baffle, which acts as another trap for fine gold and ensures the aggregate material being processed is evenly distributed.
Spreader (mining) are heavy equipment used in surface mining and mechanical engineering/civil engineering. The primary function of a spreader is to act as a continuous spreading machine in large scale open pit mining operations. Bucket-wheel excavators, BWEs are used for continuous overburden removal in surface mining applications. They use their cutting wheels to strip away a section of earth dictated by the size of the excavator.
Stacker - a stackers is a large machine used in bulk material handling. Its function is to pile bulk material such as limestone, ores and cereals on to a stockpile. A reclaimer can be used to recover the material. Stackers are nominally rated for capacity in tonnes per hour (kph). They normally travel on a rail between stockpiles in the stockyard. A stacker can usually move in at least two directions: horizontally along the rail and vertically by luffing (raising and lowering) its boom. Luffing of the boom minimises dust by reducing the distance that material such as coal needs to fall to the top of the stockpile. The boom is luffed upwards as the height of the stockpile increases. Some stackers can tort the boom. This allows a single stacker to form two stockpiles, one on either side of the conveyor.
Stamp mill is a type of mill machine that crushes material by pounding rather than grinding, either for further processing or for extraction of metallic ores. Breaking material down is a type of unit operation. A stamp mill consists of a set of heavy steel or iron-shod wood stamps, loosely held vertically in a frame, in which the stamps can slide up and down. They are lifted by cams on a horizontal rotating shaft. As the cam moves from under the stamp, the stamp falls onto the ore below, crushing the rock and the lifting process is repeated at the next pass of the cam.
Vertical roller mill is a type of grinder used to grind materials into extremely fine powder for use in mineral pressing processes, paints, pyrotechnics, cements and ceramics. It is an energy efficient alternative for a bail mill. Vertical roller mill has many different forms, but it works basically the same. All of these forms of machine come with a roller and roller along the track of the disc at the level of circular movement imposed by external grinding roller in the vertical pressure on the dice on the material being the joint action of compression and shear and to crush.
Winding engine - A winding engine is a stationary engine used to control a cable, for example to power a mining hoist at a pit head. Electric hoist controllers have replaced proper winding engines in modern mining, but use electric motors that are also traditionally referred to as winding engines. Early winding engines were powered by hand or horse. The first powered winding engines were stationary steam engines. The demand for winding engines was one of the factors that lead to the development of the rotative beam engine.