The Internet of Things (IoT) suppliers provide products and services for the connection and monitoring of anything located anywhere. It includes physical “things” networked together over wireless networks based on licensed or unlicensed spectrum. Networks operate over cellular bands, WiFi, Bluetooth or through unlicensed ISM bands that include low power wide
area networks better known as LPWAN’s. Leading LPWAN’s include LoRa, Sigfox, Zigbee and Thread from Google. Each network is comprised of gateways, sensors and backend software. Key factors for the establishment of an effective IoT network are low power, large coverage area and very long battery life in the sensors. Each LPWAN gateway can provide coverage up to 15 miles in suburban settings and support thousands of sensors per gateway. Sensors are small, low cost and have a battery life up to 10 years. Applications for IoT include smart homes, connected homes, smart cars, connected cars, smart grid, industrial IoT, M2M, machine-to-machine communications, smart building, connected building, energy monitoring, intelligent transportation, smart cities, wearables, environmental sensing, urban planning, intelligent shopping systems, energy management, biological sensors, infrastructure management, manufacturing, medical and healthcare systems, food service, restaurants, agriculture, farming, ranching, livestock, drones, military, defence and every other industry and business on earth.