Command space technologies and concept of operations.
Positive surveillance and control of the battlespace around military facilities is critical to maintain the proper function and safety of personnel, as well as the mission of the facility. The varied and rugged terrain found in many current conflict zones provides a unique challenge to any surveillance and security system.
The application of proven surveillance technologies, paired with the appropriate data fusion, infrastructure and concept of operations, are required to provide the necessary situational awareness of the facility and its surroundings.
Surveillance and security systems that give military operators the ability to See First, Understand First and Act First provide a significant leap forward from currently available installations. Implementation of CommandSpace™ integrated systems from ICx Technologies immediately provides this leap in capability.
Once the problems of surveillance and security are segmented into three operational objectives, the potential solutions to integrated security requirements become easier to deal with and understand. In order to See First, Understand First and Act First, appropriate technologies must be applied to each task.
The technologies that allow one to See First are ground surveillance radar systems, unattended ground sensors and traditional intrusion detection sensors. The next technologies required are those that give an operator the ability to Understand First. These would be multi-spectral cameras paired with simple video analytics giving operators the ability to verify and identify potential targets.
Finally, the ability to Act First is supported by command-and-control systems that leverage the fusion of all available sensor data into actionable information that is displayed in a Common Operating Picture (COP). A COP displaying real-time, actionable information can put first responders in the right place at the right time to prevent or forestall detrimental actions at the facility.
The required capabilities and technologies put information directly into the hands of the decision makers and first responders, when ever and where ever they are in the facility. Some technologies may also have the ability to not only detect and assess a threat, but to actually respond to the threat immediately with non-lethal force.
A description of individual technologies and their capabilities is below. These technologies afford radical results in the area of force multiplication. By shifting the traditional sentry approach away from extensive deployment of personnel — either in vehicles or on foot — to the selective, targeted use of fewer people complemented by information from radars and cameras, the field commander is able to have greater numbers of other specialties critical to the mission.
Ground Surveillance Radars
Traditionally, perimeter security is provided by a physical barrier that may or may not be sensored and monitored. If configured as a sensor platform and monitored for intrusions, a security fence can be prohibitively expensive to install and maintain. It is also quite prone to false alarms.
In addition, a security fence can only provide information about where an intrusion was. Once the perimeter is breached, security personnel are forced to rely on other alarms and sensors to track the progress of intruders. Unfortunately, at this point an intruder may have already reached their objective. Physical fences serve well as boundary markers and barriers; they do not make good sensor platforms.
The solution to this dilemma is to utilize sensor systems that give security personnel knowledge of the entire space they are required to protect. The only sensor system that can reliably provide this information is ground surveillance radar, which gives operators insight into not only their perimeter, but the areas both within the perimeter and beyond.
The entire ICx family of radars offers 360 degree surveillance coverage with very low false-alarm rates. All ICx radar offerings (350m, 1,400m, 4,400m and 12,000m) are interoperable, to optimize every deployment scenario. Line-of-sight characteristics vary considerably in many cases and a range of solutions may be required.
The ICx family of radars is the system-of-choice for perimeter and wide-area protection. The ICx STS-350 is the only radar that has passed U.S. government detection and false-alarm testing for crawling, walking, running and vehicle intrusions.
STS-12000 Ground Surveillance Radar
The ICx STS-12000 long range radar is the all-weather, round-the-clock, unmanned solution for 360 degree situational awareness; against personnel it sees out to 10,000 meters and sees light-truck types of vehicles out to a 12,000 meters radius from the radar. Deployed as a fixed installation or mounted one of the ICx mobile platforms for portable operations, it uses personnel-safe, low-power technology to sense people walking or running in any direction relative to the radar, as well as seeing vehicles traveling at all speeds from slow to an excess of 70mph. All ICx radars maintain a range accuracy of 3 meters or better at maximum range and an angular accuracy of less than 1 degree.
The STS–12000 has a terrain-following elevation profile of plus/minus 15 degrees. This performance is for both land and water areas. A key capability that the radar embodies is the continuous updating of new or changing activities, which provides commanders real-time situational awareness within and beyond the area of operation. Any new activity sounds an audible alarm at the control station. These alarms alert the monitoring personnel without their need to constantly view the display.
The STS-12000 radar feeds the radar data to the command post where it is displayed on the command and control screen. Multiple STS-12000 radars work in networks that can also include the STS-4400, STS-1400 and STS-350 radars as gap fillers. Data from all the radars in the network are displayed and controlled from a single view on the Resolution software. The screen shows the precise locations of the suspected intruders, their direction and speed and a record of their tracks. The resulting alarm provides instantaneous annunciation warning on the screen and an audible tone to anyone within hearing distance that a potential intrusion event is occurring, and immediate appropriate action is initiated.
STS-4400 Ground Surveillance Radar
The STS-4400 in single or multiple unit deployment provides human (walking) detection at 4000 meters and vehicle detection at 4400 meters. Crawlers are detected to more than 200 meters in 4-inch grass and to more than 300 meters over smooth desert, concrete, etc. The radar can be set up and running in several minutes. In operation, the STS-4400 radar creates a high-resolution radar map over an area of 360 degrees.
Targets are detected by the changes they cause to the “clutter map.” This method detects moving objects/people at very low speed and in any direction, typically within 5 seconds or 6 meters of displacement. The STS-4400 can detect and track up to 32 targets simultaneously.
Once setup is complete, the operator establishes detection and alarm areas. Any target that enters a detection area is tracked. Any target that enters an alarm area raises an alarm and, according to the configuration, steers one or more cameras onto the target for visual tracking, assessment and planned response. The operator can assign priorities to specific alarm areas with those areas closest to the perimeter typically set with highest priority.
STS-1400 Ground Surveillance Radar
The STS-1400 is a low-cost, low-power, high-resolution, continuous-scan, microwave-radar sensor. With all weather, all light-level capability and high resolution (0.6 meter range resolution), the STS-1400 can detect crawlers as far away as 200 meters, personnel at 1000 meters, and vehicles at 1400 meters. Every second, the STS-1400 will monitor and update more than 6 square kilometers (2.3 square miles). Up to four remotely stationed radar sensors can be networked to a single central radar server. For arrays of more than four radars, the outputs of multiple servers can be used together. The data may be displayed at multiple consoles via Ethernet TCP/IP access. It is a highly accurate radar sensor with less than three false alarms in a 24-hour period.
STS-350 Ground Surveillance Radar
The STS-350 provides a rapidly deployable, portable or fixed radar option that can be used in a variety of roles such as: mobile deployments; critical radar coverage between long-range radar emplacements; and installation/tower self-protection.
The STS-350 is an all weather, all light-level system with high-range resolution (0.5 meter range resolution), the STS-350 can detect crawlers as far away as 200 meters, personnel at 300 meters, and vehicles at 350 meters. Every second, the STS-350 will monitor and update more than 385,000 square meters. Up to eight remotely stationed radar sensors can be networked to a single central radar server. The data may be displayed at multiple consoles via Ethernet TCP/IP access. It is a highly accurate, government-tested radar sensor with less than three false alarms in a 24 hour period.
Unattended Ground Sensors
Other intrusion detection sensors can be integrated into the battlefield surveillance and security system. Existing alarms, fence sensors, unattended ground sensors (UGS) and legacy alarm points can be used as part of a System of Systems approach.